A prescription drug benefit became part of Medicare in 2006. With the benefit moving toward maturity, Hudson Institute convened a conference to assess its progress to date. At the center of the discussion was an assessment offered by former Secretary of Health and Human Services Michael Leavitt, who oversaw its implementation. Following that, a panel addressed the political and practical experiences of implementing the program. This overview provides some background about the new drug benefit, places its origin and form in historical perspective, considers the challenges involved in implementing the program, and lays out lessons thus far for the program’s future from its newest part.